Editors' ChoiceCellular and Molecular Signaling

Papers of note in Nature 547 (7661)

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Sci. Signal.  11 Jul 2017:
Vol. 10, Issue 487, eaao3019
DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.aao3019

This week’s articles highlight progress in predicting T cell receptor specificity; an evolutionarily ancient form of antiviral defense; a mechanism of chemotherapy-induced cell death; metabolic rewiring in cancer cells; and structural insights into activation of a GPCR and of a mechanosensitive ion channel.

IMMUNOLOGY

Predicting TCR specificity

Dash et al. and Glanville et al. developed methods for using the sequence of a T cell receptor to predict its antigen specificity (see also Reddy).

Ancient antiviral defense

Aguado et al. showed that RNase III nucleases from plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates suppress replication of RNA viruses by binding to viral RNA and inhibiting the viral RNA polymerase.

CANCER

Chemotherapy-induced pyroptosis

Wang et al. found that chemotherapy drugs that activate caspase-3 trigger pyroptosis through a mechanism that depends on gasdermin E.

Metabolic rewiring through mTOR

Zabala-Letona et al. showed that mTORC1 promotes tumorigenesis by stimulating the synthesis of polyamines.

STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY

GPCR activation

Gregorio et al. showed how ligand binding to the β2-adrenergic receptor allosterically affects nucleotide binding to the downstream G protein.

Coupling force to channel opening

Jin et al. used cryo–electron microscopy to investigate how force causes the mechanosensitive channel NOMPC to open.

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